Встречная торговля

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English: Countertrading

Введение

Встречная торговля представляет собой зонтичный термин, перекрывающий обширный диапазон коммерческих механизмов, обеспечивающих взаимную торговлю. Она может проявлять себя в нескольких формах, но в любом случае влечет за собой, по крайней мере частично, оплату выполняемую товарами или услугами вместо денег. Часто встречная торговля встречается в практике многонациональных компаний (МНК), которые осуществляют продажи покупателям за рубежом, а их покупатели расплачиваются тем, что поставляют товары для МНК. В некоторых странах, встречная торговля является условием закупающей организации, импортирующей товары из другихз мест [1]. There are many forms of countertrading, ranging from simple barter agreements to complex offset deals that involve the exporter agreeing to compensatory practices with respect to the buyer. Countertrading commonly takes place between private companies in developed nations and the governments of developing countries, although countertrading also occurs between developed nations. It has become popular as a means of financing international trade to reduce risks or overcome problems associated with various national currencies.

Read more: Countertrading http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Cos-Des/Countertrading.html#ixzz27DpA3fwg


Throughout history countertrading and barter [2] occurred whenever there was a shortage of money, or before money even existed. In modern times, countertrading arose as a means of conducting international trade when money was scarce, currencies couldn't be converted, or they were subject to inflationary and deflationary swings in value. In Germany between the two World Wars and after World War II, money was scarce and countertrading and barter became a way of conducting international trade. Eastern European countries followed Germany's lead and employed countertrading to overcome the problems of their own nonconvertible currencies. It was a practice that was favored by the centrally planned Eastern European economies. In the 1990s Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union began countertrading with Western nations to overcome difficulties associated with their currencies.

Классификационное “дерево” форм встречной торговли [3]

COUNTERTRADING R.jpeg

References

  1. Countertrade - CIPS Knowledge Works - http://www.cips.org/Documents/Resources/Knowledge%20Summary/Countertrade.pdf - accessed 05/09/2012
  2. Countertrading // Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business - http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Cos-Des/Countertrading.html#ixzz0uhqG14cn - accessed 05/08/2012
  3. Kotabe, M., Helsen, K. Global Marketing Management. – John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, etc., 2001 – p.441, Ex.13-8. – Redesigned.
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