Материал из Supply Chain Management Encyclopedia
Organizations, personnel, procedures, facilities and networks employed to transmit and receive information by electrical or electronic means. In accordance with definition from The International Encyclopedia of Communication communication infrastructure refers to the backbone of the communications system upon which various broadcasting and telecommunication services are operated. This can be built from copper cable, fiber, or wireless technologies utilizing the radio frequency spectrum, such as microwave and satellite. The infrastructure is the core component that connects upstream production, such as voice, data and audiovisual services, with downstream consumers. In the very common sense the infrastructure could be defined as capital goods offering public services, often associated with public utilities such as electricity, water, and communications, and this definition remains pertinent to communication infrastructure today because it does not link public services to public capital goods. The ability to communicate with customers and suppliers, either by mail, by phone, or through other electronic media, is very important to the smooth operation of an international transaction. Two main communication means that are the most important for international business are mobile phones and Internet devices which are on the way to be fully integrated in the near future. The world penetration of such communication infrastructure is illustrated by the following data concerning mobile phones and Internet users.
Список 10 первых стран по числу мобильных телефонов в пользовании (Таблица слева) и по числу Интернет-пользователей (Таблица справа)
- ↑ The International Encyclopedia of Communication - http://www.communicationencyclopedia.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405131995_yr2011_chunk_g97814051319958_ss78-1
- ↑ Hirschman, A. The Strategy of Economic Development, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1958
- ↑ List of countries by number of mobile phones in use - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_number_of_mobile_phones_in_use
- ↑ Population estimates obtained from International Data Base , U.S. Census Bureau, accessed on 19 August 2012. Population for Falkland Islands obtained from World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision , Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, accessed on 19 August 2012.