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(Generalized offset transaction scheme)
(Table 1. Subjects and Features of Offset Arrangements Holmes, J. Preparing The Offset Proposal - Barter News - http://www.barternews.com/offset_proposal.htm)
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== '''Generalized offset transaction scheme''' ==
== '''Generalized offset transaction scheme''' ==

Версия 02:34, 2 июля 2014

English: Offset


General provisions

Политически сфокусированное, но верное определение гласит [1]: Оффсет является такой практикой[2], посредством которой государственные покупатели ищут компенсацию за расходы на технические и финансовые инвестиции в отечественных отраслях, вызванные за счет приобретения ими оборудования иностранного производства. Оффсетные сделки представляют собой широкий класс встречной торговли, который во все возрастающем масштабе представляет наиболее распространенные соглашения, в рамках которых инвестиционные (капитальные) товары поставляются и оплачиваются покупателем, а поставщик по принципу quid pro quo (услуга за услугу; я тебе, а ты мне) идентифицирует другие товары/услуги, которые могут быть закуплены на собственные потребности поставщика или им же для предложения и продажи (маркетирования) третьим сторонам в целях развития новых экспортных продаж [3] </ref>. С другой стороны, этот покупатель может искать входящие инвестиции в виде инвестиционных товаров поставщика. Эта, по сути, сделка встречной торговли предназначена для того, чтобы генерировать новый поток дохода для покупателя, чтобы смягчить его общие экономические издержки, связанные с закупкой исходных капитальных (инвестиционных) товаров.

Offset transactions are a wider class of countertrading that increasingly represents the most prevalent arrangements where capital goods are supplied and paid for by the customer and as a quid pro quo the supplier identifies other goods or services which can either be purchased for the supplier’s own requirements or marketed to third parties for the purpose of developing new export sales . On the other hand, the customer may seek inward investment from the capital goods supplier. The countertrade transaction is intended to generate a new income stream for the customer to mitigate the overall economic costs of purchasing the initial capital goods. According to explications of the HMV Group Frontier Solutions TM that is forming Leading Software Solutions for the US Defense Market, offset considerations are a critical aspect of any sales transaction to a foreign country. For the last time, purchasing governments have increased the emphasis placed on reciprocal trade agreements to compensate partly their military expenses. Governments utilize offset arrangements to benefit their state economy beyond the purchased military goods. With proper consideration, offset requirements are an opportunity to gain an advantage against the competition. Currently, at least fifty countries require offsets arrangements in military or aerospace purchases, while another fifty countries have enacted provisions to utilize offsets. Offset arrangements are very common in the Middle East and Eurasia[4].

Offset Classification [5]

  • Direct Offsets: Contractual arrangements that involve defense articles and services referenced in the sales agreement for military exports. . Direct offset is a form of compensation to a purchaser involving goods or services that are directly related to the item being purchased [6]. For example, as a condition of a military exporting country’s sale, the contractor (exporter) may agree to permit the purchaser (importer) to produce in its country certain components or subsystems of the item being sold. Normally, direct offsets must be performed within a specified period.Sometimes, they include into the list of direct offsets include co-production (See below), licensing, subcontracting, and joint venturing. Naturally, if the main features oа offsets are revealed herein.
  • Indirect Offsets: Contractual arrangements that involve goods and services unrelated to the exports referenced in the sales agreement.Indirect offset is a form of compensation to a purchaser (importer) involving goods or services that are unrelated to the item being purchased [7]. For example, as a condition of a sale the contractor (exporter) may agree to purchase certain of the customer's domestically manufactured products, agricultural commodities, raw materials, or services. Indirect offsets may be accomplished over an expected, open-ended period of time.
  • Co-production: Overseas production based upon a government-to-government agreement that permits a foreign government(s) or producer(s) to acquire the technical information to manufacture all or part of a U.S. origin defense article. Co-production includes government-to-government licensed production, but it excludes licensed production based upon arrangements with U.S. manufacturers.

Table 1. Subjects and Features of Offset Arrangements[8]

Subjects of Direct Offsets Comments to Direct Offsets Subjects of Indirect Offsets Comments to Indirect Offsets
Local assembly and procurement of locally made components
  • This is the most commonly found and most straightforward form of offset.
  • Often a certain number of the complete aircraft, or other piece of equipment being purchased, is imported, and then kits are supplied from which the remainder are assembled. Whatever can be supplied or manufactured locally is then included in the assembly.
  • Technology transfer, licensing, and the setting up of joint ventures with appropriate local companies may be involved, these sometimes being government establishments
  • The buying country may nominate certain industries in which investment would be preferred, or the seller may make proposals, related to the arrangements that can be made with associated or collaborating companies either in its own country or possibly others
  • As with direct investment, technology transfers, licensing, and the setting up of new companies or joint ventures could be involved. These new industries may be required to have export potential.
  • The buying country may require the investment to be made, and the establishment of the new industry, in a region of the country that is relatively undeveloped and where there might be a high degree of unemployment.
Technology transfer.
  • The seller will select the technology it would be prepared to transfer, in the form of know-how and/or licenses. The situation may arise where the buyer (or the government to whom the tender is made) might press for certain technology which the seller is reluctant to release.
  • The buyer might accept technology unrelated to the product being purchased. Sellers then are at liberty to offer technology which for them is superseded, but nonetheless is significant for the buyer
Assistance in export marketing.
  • When the selling company is a large multi-national with a world-wide marketing organization, it could be negotiated for it to take over or assist in the international marketing of the equipment manufactured locally, be it either the product contracted, or the goods made in an unrelated industry. Particularly one in which it has invested
  • Usually investment is preferred in enterprises that will continue after the offset commitment is complete, as the buying government has the objective of permanently enhancing its industrial sector with the investment
  • Technology transfer may be linked with the investment, and may indeed form at least part of the equity of the seller in the enterprise. Finding appropriate companies in which to invest, or to form joint ventures, could be a considerable task, but the buying government may have proposals to make.
Technical and professional training
  • An interest of the buying country may be in the establishment of an educational or training institute at any particular level, such as a secondary technical college, a faculty, or a research or teaching institution in a university.
  • Professional and technical training of personnel from the buyer's country would usually be related to the product being purchased, but it could also be of a more general nature, specified by the buyer.
  • An alternative is to fund training in the buyer's country, by setting up an organization and providing the teachers.
Civil construction projects
  • An indirect offset could include infrastructure projects, such as the construction of a road, port facility or airport.
Research & Development
  • Contributions in personnel and resources can be offered to the buying government, given a knowledge of what would be preferred.
Tertiary activities
  • Examples of indirect offsets involving tertiary services are tourism, shipping services, printing, and arranging conferences and legal services.
  • In the case of tourism, buying countries have made available a number of hotel rooms which have been allocated for vacations taken by the suppliers' employees, or have been sold to tourist agencies for the general public.
Maintenance and servicing
  • This would be a normal part of any sales of equipment with a high technological component.
  • As an offset proposal it could be for the establishment of a special center for servicing and maintaining the equipment sold, with the provision of plant and equipment, and stocks of spare parts, as well as the training of the locally-recruited personnel to man the center.
Commodities and semi-manufactured goods
  • The inclusion in the offset package of goods unrelated to the equipment being supplied involves the countertrade procedure known as counterpurchase.
  • Counterpurchase requires the supplier to accept goods, either nominated by the buyer, or selected by the supplier, and to dispose of them on the international market.
  • As the supplier is more likely than not to be a manufacturer, it would not have any marketing experience related to the goods supplied for counterpurchase, but would still have to arrange for their sale on the international market.

Generalized offset transaction scheme


EXAMPLE[9]: As it is well-known for the case in military aircraft deals, there were offsets involved. Some are industrial, including a service center for the aircraft in Malaysia, but one offset was especially interesting an is given herein to show an offsets variety. According to Victor Komardin, Deputy Director General of Rosoboronexport:“…the offset clause of the Contract with Malaysia envisages the on-site setup of the Service center for the Russian-made aircraft as well as the assistance in promoting the Malaysian national space program. In autumn 2007 the first Malaysian cosmonaut is due to visit the International Space Station as a member of the 16th space crew.” And it was so. The ISS got a Malaysian visitor, orders progressed, and all 18 SU-30MKMs were delivered.


  1. Definitions - http://www.stemcor.com/definitions.aspx
  2. Черенков В.И. Внешнеэкономическая деятельность предприятия: основные операции. Ростов-н/Д: Феникс, 2007 – с. 101-107
  3. Offset/Countertrade - http://www.stemcor.com/offsetcountertrade.aspx
  4. Offset Ventures, HMV Group, LLC OFFSET Information - p.3. - http://www.docstoc.com/docs/33971994/What-is-an-offset-agreement
  5. ibid, p.1.
  6. Offsets of Foreign Military Sales - http://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/cpic/ic/offsets_of_foreign_military_sales.html.
  7. ibid
  8. Holmes, J. Preparing The Offset Proposal - Barter News - http://www.barternews.com/offset_proposal.htm
  9. The SU-30MKM Deal: Old Offsets & New Opportunities - http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/malaysia-receives-first-2-su30mkms-03336/
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